Pets are susceptible to a range of health issues, including infections that can affect their well-being. One such common culprit is Giardia in dogs and cats — a microscopic, waterborne protozoan parasite that can cause gastrointestinal upset, often catching both pets and their owners off guard.
While this single-celled organism might be tiny, its impact can be significant. From persistent diarrhea and vomiting to weight loss and lethargy, the effects of Giardia infection can be debilitating, especially in young pets or pets with weakened immune systems.
Giardia is a common concern in both household pets and working dogs. In this article, we talk about Giardia in cats and dogs, Giardia symptoms in dogs and cats, its transmission, the importance of early Giardia detection, and more.\\
What’s in This Guide?
- What is Giardiasis or Giardia in Dogs & Cats
- Diagnosing Giardiasis in Dogs and Cats
- How to Treat Giardia in Dogs and Cats
- How to Prevent Giardia in Cats and Dogs
- How Long Does Giardia Last in Dogs and Cats?
- How Serious is Giardia in Dogs and Cats?
What is Giardiasis or Giardia in Dogs & Cats
Giardia is a common microscopic intestinal parasite in dogs and cats. It can affect dogs and cats of any age or breed. The disease caused by Giardia is called ‘Giardiasis.’ In some cases, Giardia in dogs and cats may produce severe symptoms that require supportive therapy (i.e. SQ fluids). Senior dogs and cats, younger pets, and pets with compromised immune systems are more likely to show severe symptoms.
Note: When people get infected by Giardia, the most common sources are contaminated water sources or contaminated food. It is not as likely for humans to get giardia from dogs and cats, especially with good hygiene practices in place.
Cause of Giardiasis in Cats & Dogs
The scientific name of the protozoan species responsible for Giardiasis is Giardia duodenalis. G. duodenalis is further subdivided into ‘assemblages’, labeled A through H.
Cats can be infected with G. duodenalis from assemblages A and F. Dogs, assemblages A, C, and D. Humans, assemblage A.
Note: Because veterinary clinics typically don’t narrow down the assemblage of G. duodenalis infecting a dog or cat — meaning assemblage A, the one that can infect humans, may or may not be the cause — pet owners are advised to be extra careful when handling the stool of a pet with Giardia. For good measure, we recommend pet parents ALWAYS wash their hands after cleaning up any fecal matter (whether or not Giardia is suspected).
Once inside a dog’s or cat’s body, Giardia either swims freely or attaches to the lining of a pet's intestines, disrupting nutrient absorption and leading to various uncomfortable symptoms.
Giardia in dogs and cats can be contracted via the following routes:
- Being in contact with feces from an infected dog or cat (even in trace amounts)
- Direct contact with contaminated objects
- Playing or resting on contaminated soil or surfaces (especially if the pet subsequently grooms or licks their fur and paws)
Note: Giardia in infected soil or water can be viable (or capable of infecting a pet) for several months.
Giardia Symptoms in Dogs & Cats
Many cases do NOT produce Giardia symptoms in dogs and cats. When a pet is found to have Giardia in their feces during a routine fecal exam (typically part of regular wellness exams), it is at the discretion of the veterinarian whether the asymptomatic pet needs treatment for Giardia.
When infected pets DO develop symptoms, the ones associated with Giardia in dogs and cats are the following:
- Watery diarrhea;
- Abdominal gas;
- Nausea & vomiting.
Diarrhea is one of the most commonly experienced symptoms when it comes to Giardia in cats and dogs. As further explained by Sploot’s veterinarian, Dr. Allison Kihn, “Usually pet parents observe acute small bowel diarrhea: larger volume of feces at a normal frequency and no urgency. It is much more rare for giardia to cause large bowl diarrhea: small amounts of feces that the animal can't hold.”
Diagnosing Giardiasis in Dogs and Cats
Diagnosing Giardia in dogs and cats helps administer the best treatment as soon as possible — thereby stopping incidents of watery diarrhea, which, in severe cases, can lead to dehydration, as well as other uncomfortable symptoms.
Veterinarians employ different methods to diagnose a Giardia infection conclusively. In all of these tests, a fecal sample is used.
A direct smear of the fecal sample can be inspected under the microscope for Giardia cysts, which are microscopic hard shells containing the protozoa. To increase the chances of detecting Giardia cysts, veterinarians can use a technique called fecal flotation, which helps to isolate the Giardia cysts in a solution before doing a microscopic examination.
For an easier way of detecting Giardia cysts, veterinarians can also use a giardia antigen test, which detects antigens coming from the protozoa.
Note: Only licensed veterinarians can diagnose Giardiasis in dogs and cats. Watery diarrhea, along with the other symptoms associated with Giardia, are not exclusive to Giardia — meaning that diagnosing based on symptoms is not conclusive. Furthermore, Giardia cysts, which signify the presence of Giardia in dogs and cats, are microscopic and require laboratory testing to be detected.
How to Treat Giardia in Dogs and Cats
Giardia in cats and dogs is treated with a prescribed antibiotic or dewormer; the duration of treatment varies per case. Medications are effective in resolving clinical signs of Giardia in dogs and cats, which is already a step forward in terms of health and well-being — a complete cure may be more challenging to achieve in some cases.
Medication for Giardia in cats and dogs are not over-the-counter and will require a prescription from a licensed veterinarian. Veterinarians may also recommend a special diet for your pet while they are being treated for Giardiasis.
Most cases of Giardia can be treated at home after consulting a veterinarian and getting prescription medication. In some rare cases, severe symptoms may need hospitalization — this is usually the case for pets that are experiencing persistent diarrhea or vomiting which need to be managed with IV fluids.
How to Prevent Giardia in Cats and Dogs
Though Giardia is an unseen threat, there are ways to help prevent this infection in dogs and cats. Check out the following tips:
Ensure Clean Sources of Water
Avoid letting your pet drink from stagnant ponds, puddles, or other potentially contaminated water sources.
Proper Hygiene & Sanitation
Regularly clean and disinfect areas your dog or cat frequents or uses, such as their indoor living spaces, bedding, and feeding bowls. Doing so helps reduce the chances of contamination. As for outdoor environments, it is advisable to clean up a pet’s stool promptly — whether in public spaces or in the yard.
In addition, regular baths, cleaning up stool that gets stuck on a pet’s fur, and maintaining overall good grooming will help prevent Giardia cysts from clinging to a pet’s fur — and being subsequently ingested through licking).
Regular Wellness Exams
Regular wellness exams for pets help detect any potential health issues, including Giardia in cats and dogs. An annual fecal exam, which can be included in your pet’s wellness exam, will help detect Giardia infections (even in asymptomatic dogs and cats). Early detection of this disease allows for early intervention.
How Long Does Giardia Last in Dogs and Cats?
The duration of a Giardiasis infection in dogs and cats depends on their overall health condition and the promptness of effective treatment.
It’s also important to note that some pets may experience occasional flare-ups of Giardiasis — as these flare-ups stop and symptoms calm down temporarily, it gives a false impression that the protozoa parasite is gone for good. The best way to know if a pet is healed from Giardiasis is to consult a veterinarian.
Note: Reinfection can occur. Maintaining proper hygiene, practicing good grooming, and ensuring clean water sources for your pet will help in preventing reinfections.
How Serious is Giardia in Dogs and Cats?
The severity of symptoms of Giardiasis in dogs and cats depends on the pet’s overall health and age. Most pets do not experience severe symptoms. Typically, symptoms of Giardiasis in cats and dogs are more severe for puppies and kittens, elderly pets, and immunocompromised pets.
In addition, symptoms like diarrhea and vomiting are the easiest to detect — but some pets do not specifically experience these symptoms. Dogs and cats that only experience abdominal pain and gas due to Giardia will ‘appear’ to be asymptomatic.
Final Thoughts About Giardiasis in Dogs and Cats
We hope you found this guide on Giardia in cats and dogs helpful! If you have specific questions about Giardia in pets or treatment options, we recommend reaching out to a veterinarian!
Sploot Veterinary Care is always here to help! We are a primary and urgent care veterinary clinic with multiple convenient locations and daily appointment availability. Whatever health problem your furry companion is undergoing, our experienced veterinarians give prompt diagnoses and effective treatment recommendations!
Conveniently schedule a sick visit or wellness exam for your four-legged best friend today! We also accept walk-ins in all of our locations.
Till next time, we’re with you every pounce of the way!